Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Basis of Presentation and Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of purchase. As of December 31, 2022, cash equivalents consisted of U.S. Treasury Bills.
Short-term investments
Short-term investments are investments with original maturities greater than three months but less than twelve months from the date of purchase. As of December 31, 2022, short-term investments consisted of U.S. Treasury Bills. The Company classifies the short-term investments as held-to-maturity in accordance with ASC 320, "Investments - Debt and Equity Securities." Held-to-maturity securities are those securities which the Company has the ability and intent to hold until maturity and are recorded at amortized cost on the accompanying consolidated balance sheet, adjusted for the accretion of discounts using the interest method.
Inventory is carried at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Items in inventory relate predominantly to the Company’s ClearPoint system. Software license inventory related to ClearPoint systems undergoing on-site customer evaluation is included in inventory in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. All other software license inventory is classified as a non-current asset. The Company periodically reviews its inventory for obsolete items and provides a reserve upon identification of potential obsolete items.
Intangible Assets
The Company is a party to a license agreement which provides rights to the Company for the development and commercialization of products. Under the term of the license agreement, the Company paid an aggregate $0.8 million to the licensor upon execution of the license agreement for access to the underlying technology and will make future payments based on the achievement of regulatory and commercialization milestones as defined in the license agreement. In 2022, the Company made a payment of $0.6 million to the licensor for the achievement of a regulatory milestone, which acts as a prepayment for future royalties.
In conformity with Accounting Standards Codification Section 350, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other,” the Company amortizes its investment in the upfront license rights described above over an expected useful life of five years, or as commercial sales occur for the royalty prepayment. In addition, the Company periodically evaluates the recoverability of its investment in the license rights and records an impairment charge in the event such evaluation indicates that the Company's investment is not likely to be recovered.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives, principally three to five years. Leasehold improvements are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lesser of their estimated useful lives or the term of the related lease.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically evaluates the recoverability of its long-lived assets (finite-lived intangible assets and property and equipment). Whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be fully recoverable, the expected undiscounted future cash flows are compared to the net book value of the related assets. If the net book value of the related assets were to exceed the undiscounted expected future cash flows of the assets, the carrying amount would be reduced to the present value of the expected future cash flows and an impairment loss would be recognized.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s revenue is comprised primarily of: (1) product revenue resulting from the sale of functional neurosurgery, navigation, therapy, and biologics and drug delivery disposable products; (2) product revenue resulting from the sale of ClearPoint capital equipment and software; (3) revenue resulting from the service, installation, training, and shipping related to ClearPoint capital equipment and software; (4) consultation revenue and clinical case support revenue in connection with customer-sponsored pre-clinical and clinical trials; and (5) license revenue for the granting of a license to develop and commercialize the Company's SmartFlow Cannula devices with Partners' proprietary biologics as a combination product. The Company recognizes revenue when control of the Company’s products and services is transferred to its customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to receive from its customers in exchange for those products and services, in a process that involves identifying the contract with a customer, determining the performance obligations in the contract, determining the contract price, allocating the contract price to the distinct performance obligations in the contract, and recognizing revenue when the performance obligations have been satisfied. A performance obligation is considered distinct from other obligations in a contract when it provides a benefit to the customer either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and is separately identified in the contract. When a contract calls for the satisfaction of multiple performance obligations for a single contract price, the Company typically allocates the contract price among the performance obligations based on the relative stand-alone prices for each such performance obligation customarily charged by the Company. The Company considers a performance obligation satisfied once it has transferred control of a good or service to the customer, meaning the customer has the ability to use and obtain the benefit of the good or service. The Company recognizes revenue for satisfied performance obligations only when it determines there are no uncertainties regarding payment terms or transfer of control.
Lines of Business; Timing of Revenue Recognition
Functional neurosurgery navigation product, biologics and drug delivery systems product, and therapy product sales: Revenue from the sale of functional neurosurgery navigation products (consisting of disposable products sold commercially and related to cases utilizing the Company's ClearPoint system),
biologics and drug delivery systems (consisting primarily of disposable products related to customer-sponsored clinical trials utilizing the ClearPoint system), and therapy products (consisting primarily of disposable laser-related products used in non-neurosurgical procedures) is generally based on customer purchase orders, the predominance of which require delivery within one week of the order having been placed, and are generally recognized at the point in time of shipping to the customer, which is the point at which legal title, and risks and rewards of ownership, transfer to the customer. For certain customers, legal title and risks and rewards of ownership transfer upon delivery to the customer as stated in their respective contracts, in which case revenue is recognized upon delivery.
Capital equipment and software sales:
Capital equipment and software sales preceded by evaluation periods: The predominance of capital equipment and software sales (consisting of integrated computer hardware and software that are integral components of the Company's ClearPoint system) are preceded by customer evaluation periods. During these evaluation periods, installation of, and training of customer personnel on, the systems have been completed and the systems have been in operation. Accordingly, revenue from capital equipment and software sales following such evaluation periods is recognized at the point in time that the Company is in receipt of an executed purchase agreement or purchase order.

Capital equipment and software sales not preceded by evaluation periods: Revenue from sales of capital equipment and software not having been preceded by an evaluation period is recognized upon delivery to the customer and installation. For capital equipment that does not require installation, revenue is recognized upon shipment, however, for those customers where legal title and risks and rewards of ownership transfer upon delivery, revenue is recognized at such time.

For both types of capital equipment and software sales described above, the determination of the point in time at which to recognize revenue represents that point at which the customer has legal title, physical possession, and the risks and rewards of ownership, and the Company has a present right to payment.
Functional neurosurgery navigation and therapy services: The Company recognizes revenue for such services at the point in time that the performance obligation has been satisfied.
Biologics and drug delivery services and other revenue:
Consultation Services: The Company recognizes consultation revenue at the point in time such services are performed.
Clinical Service Access Fees: For contracts in which the Company receives a periodic fixed fee, irrespective of the number of cases attended by the Company's personnel during such periods, revenue is recognized ratably over the period covered by such fees. A time-elapsed output method is used for such fees because the Company transfers control evenly by providing a stand-ready service.
Clinical Service Procedure-Based Fees: The Company recognizes revenue at the point in time a case is attended by Company personnel.
License fees: The Company has determined that license fees represent the use of functional intellectual property as it exists at the point in time at which the license is granted and does not require any significant development or customization. Therefore, the Company recognizes license revenue at the point in time in which the license becomes effective and the intellectual property is made available to the customer.
Capital equipment-related services:
Equipment service: Revenue from service of ClearPoint capital equipment and software previously sold to customers is based on agreements with terms ranging from one to three years and revenue is recognized ratably on a monthly basis over the term of the service agreement. A time-elapsed output method is used for service revenue because the Company transfers control evenly by providing a stand-ready service.
The Company may also enter into contracts with customers who own ClearPoint capital equipment, which bundle maintenance and support services and access to software and hardware upgrades made commercially available over the term of the contract, for a single contract price, typically paid on an annual basis. The Company allocates the contract price among the performance obligations based on the relative stand-alone prices for each such performance obligation and recognizes the revenue ratably on a monthly basis. A time-elapsed output method is used as the Company is providing a stand-ready service for each of the performance obligations.
Installation, training, and shipping: Consistent with the Company's recognition of revenue for capital equipment and software sales as described above, fees for installation, training, and shipping in connection with sales of capital equipment and software that have been preceded by customer evaluation periods are recognized as revenue at the point in time the Company is in receipt of an executed purchase order for the equipment and software. Installation, training, and shipping fees related to capital equipment and software sales not having been preceded by an evaluation period are recognized as revenue concurrent with the recognition of revenue of the related capital equipment.
The Company operates in one industry segment, and the predominance of its sales are to U.S.-based customers.
Payment terms under contracts with customers generally are in a range of 30-60 days after the customers’ receipt of the Company’s invoices.
The Company's terms and conditions do not provide for a right of return unless for: (a) product defects; or (b) other conditions subject to the Company's approval.
See Note 3 for additional information regarding revenue recognition.
Research and Development Costs
Costs related to research, design and development of products are charged to research and development expense as incurred.
Income Taxes
Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax bases. Such assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income or loss in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company provides a valuation allowance against net deferred income tax assets unless, based upon available evidence, it is more likely than not the deferred income tax assets will be realized. The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company had no accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes net loss per share using the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Basic and diluted net loss per share are the same because the conversion, exercise or issuance of all potential common stock equivalents, which comprise the entire amount of the Company’s outstanding common stock options and warrants as described in Note 9, and the potential conversion of the First Closing Notes, as described in Note 7, would be anti-dilutive, due to the reporting of a net loss for each of the periods in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Share-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for compensation for all arrangements under which employees, directors and others receive shares of stock or other equity instruments (including options and warrants) based on fair value. The fair value of each award is estimated as of the grant date and amortized as compensation expense over the requisite vesting period. The fair values of the Company’s share-based awards are estimated on the grant dates using the Black-Scholes valuation
model. This valuation model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected stock volatility, estimated award terms and risk-free interest rates for the expected terms. To estimate the expected terms, the Company utilizes the simplified method for “plain vanilla” options discussed in the Staff Accounting Bulletin 107 (“SAB 107”) issued by the SEC. The Company believes that all factors listed within SAB 107 as pre-requisites for utilizing the simplified method apply to the Company and its share-based compensation arrangements. The Company intends to utilize the simplified method for the foreseeable future until more detailed information about exercise behavior becomes available. In prior years, the Company based its estimate of expected volatility on the average of: (i) historical volatilities of publicly traded companies it deemed similar to the Company; and (ii) the Company’s historical volatility due to limited historical data. In 2022, the Company refined this methodology to include only the historical volatility of its common stock given that trading volumes have increased and the Company believes that its own historical data is representative of future expected volatility and a better estimate of fair value. The impact of this change is not material to the financial statements. The Company utilizes risk-free interest rates based on zero-coupon U.S. treasury instruments, the terms of which are consistent with the expected terms of the equity awards. The Company has not paid and does not anticipate paying cash dividends on its shares of common stock; therefore, the expected dividend yield is assumed to be zero.
Fair Value Determination of Share-Based Transactions
The Company’s common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “CLPT.” Quoted closing stock prices are used as a key input in determining the fair value for share-based transactions. For the period from December 9, 2019 until the Company’s corporate name change and stock trading symbol change on February 12, 2020, the Company’s common stock was traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “MRIC.”
Concentration Risks and Other Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company holds substantially all its cash and cash equivalents on deposit with financial institutions in the U.S. that are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or in U.S. government debt securities. At December 31, 2022, the Company had approximately $1.8 million in bank balances that were in excess of the insured limits.
At December 31, 2022, one customer accounted for 19% of accounts receivable, and at December 31, 2021, one customer accounted for 15% of accounts receivable.
One pharmaceutical customer, a related party who is a stockholder, a noteholder, and who has a representative on the Company's Board of Directors (see Note 7), for whom the Company provides hardware, software, clinical services, and market development services in support of the customer's clinical trials, and from whom the Company earns a quarterly fee, accounted for 15% of total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2022, and of 18% total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021.
Prior to granting credit, the Company performs credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition, and generally does not require collateral from its customers. The Company will provide an allowance for doubtful accounts when collections become doubtful. The allowance for doubtful accounts at December 31, 2022 and 2021 was $0.1 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
The Company is subject to risks common to emerging companies in the medical device industry, including, but not limited to: new technological innovations; acceptance and competitiveness of its products; dependence on key personnel; dependence on key suppliers; dependence on third-party collaboration, license and joint development partners; changes in general economic conditions and interest rates; protection of proprietary technology; compliance with changing government regulations; uncertainty of widespread market acceptance of products; access to credit for capital purchases by customers; and product liability claims. Certain components used in manufacturing have relatively few alternative sources of supply and establishing additional or replacement suppliers for such components cannot be accomplished quickly. The inability of any of these suppliers to fulfill the Company’s supply requirements may negatively impact future operating results.
Recent Accounting Standards
Effective January 1, 2021, the Company adopted, on a modified retrospective method of transition, the provisions of Accounting Standards Update No. 2020-06, “Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40) – Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity” (the “ASU”). The ASU is effective for public companies, other than smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC, for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and for smaller reporting companies, which is the Company’s current classification, for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2023. However, the ASU permits early adoption, no earlier than for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2020, and the Company elected such early adoption. The ASU amends prior authoritative literature to reduce the number of accounting models for, among others, convertible debt instruments for which the embedded conversion features of such instruments had previously been required to be separated from the host contract. The Company determined that the conversion feature embedded in the Second Closing Note (see Note 7) was within the scope of the ASU. Accordingly, the discount originally recorded in connection with the issuance of the Second Closing Note and a corresponding amount recorded in additional paid-in capital, each in the amount of approximately $3.1 million at the date of issuance of the Second Closing Note, were reversed as of the date of adoption of the ASU.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, "Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326)," which replaces the current incurred loss impairment methodology for most financial assets with the current expected credit loss, or CECL, methodology. The series of new guidance amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses rather than incurred losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We are currently evaluating the impact that the new guidance will have on our financial statements.
The accompanying consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2022 contains certain items formerly classified as sales and marketing expenses and research and development that have been reclassified to cost of revenue. Additionally, in 2022, the Company is classifying share-based compensation in the same income statement line items as the cash compensation paid to those employees, rather than in general and administrative expense. The accompanying consolidated statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2021 has been conformed to the 2022 presentation.